John Stuart Mill, the bastion of enlightened, liberal 19th century thinking, spent his working life as an administrator of the East India Company. This is a company that traded in slaves, pursued ruthless policies to establish trade monopolies which destroyed local economies, and even employed its own private army and navy to forcefully annex and govern foreign territories. Mill wasn’t a fool. We might be tempted to ask, as US economist Abram Harris did:
John Stuart Mill was the leading public intellectual of his time and he was as racist as they came. I profoundly agree!